The ongoing extreme acute respiratory illness coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in additional than 3,600,000 detected circumstances of COVID-19 sickness and practically 260,000 deaths worldwide as of May 6, 2020. Recently, BCG vaccination was proven to correlate with reduced COVID-19 case fatality charges (Miller et al, 2020; Sala & Miyagawa, 2020; https://www.jsatonotes.com/2020/03/if-i-were-north-americaneuropeanaustral.html).
The most up-to-date knowledge from publicly out there assets additionally point out that each COVID-19 incidence and whole deaths are strongly related to the presence or absence of nationwide necessary BCG vaccination applications. As seen in Table 1, seven of eight international locations with very low numbers of whole deaths (<40 per a million inhabitants) adopted a compulsory BCG vaccination program utilizing certainly one of a set of 6 separate BCG strains (Table 1).
In distinction, COVID-19 mortality was markedly increased in international locations the place BCG vaccination just isn’t extensively administered or is given solely to high-risk teams. COVID-19 mortality was additionally increased in international locations the place widespread BCG vaccination was discontinued greater than 20 years in the past and in international locations that used the BCG Denmark pressure often or quickly.
This raises the query of whether or not BCG vaccination and reduced COVID-19 mortality are causally related. An further query is why completely different BCG strains could also be variably related to mortality.
COVID-19 Among Workers in Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities – 19 States, April 2020
Congregate work and residential places are at elevated danger for infectious illness transmission together with respiratory sickness outbreaks. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19), is primarily unfold particular person to particular person by way of respiratory droplets. Nationwide, the meat and poultry processing business, a vital part of the U.S. meals infrastructure, employs roughly 500,000 individuals, lots of whom work in proximity to different staff
(1). Because of experiences of preliminary circumstances of COVID-19, in some meat processing services, states have been requested to present aggregated knowledge in regards to the variety of meat and poultry processing services affected by COVID-19 and the variety of staff with COVID-19 in these services, together with COVID-19-related deaths.
Qualitative knowledge gathered by CDC throughout on-site and distant assessments have been analyzed and summarized.
During April 9-27, combination knowledge on COVID-19 circumstances amongst 115 meat or poultry processing services in 19 states have been reported to CDC. Among these services, COVID-19 was identified in 4,913 (roughly 3%) staff, and 20 COVID-19-related deaths have been reported. Facility obstacles to efficient prevention and management of COVID-19 included problem distancing staff no less than 6 toes (2 meters) from each other
(2) and in implementing COVID-19-specific disinfection pointers.* Among staff, socioeconomic challenges may contribute to working whereas feeling in poor health, significantly if there are administration practices comparable to bonuses that incentivize attendance.
Methods to lower transmission throughout the facility embody employee symptom screening applications, insurance policies to discourage working whereas experiencing signs appropriate with COVID-19, and social distancing by staff. Source management measures (e.g., the usage of fabric face covers) in addition to elevated disinfection of high-touch surfaces are additionally necessary technique of stopping SARS-CoV-2 publicity.
Mitigation efforts to scale back transmission locally also needs to be thought of. Many of those measures may also scale back asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission
(3). Implementation of those public well being methods will assist shield staff from COVID-19 on this business and help in preserving the important meat and poultry manufacturing infrastructure.
Public Health Response to the Initiation and Spread of Pandemic COVID-19 within the United States, February 24-April 21, 2020
From January 21 by way of February 23, 2020, a complete of 14 circumstances of coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) have been identified in six U.S. states, together with 12 circumstances in vacationers arriving from China and two in family contacts of individuals with confirmed infections. An further 39 circumstances have been recognized in individuals repatriated from affected areas outdoors the United States
(1). Starting in late February, experiences of circumstances with no latest journey to affected areas or hyperlinks to identified circumstances signaled the initiation of pandemic unfold within the United States
(2). By mid-March, transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, had accelerated, with quickly rising case counts indicating established transmission within the United States.
Ongoing traveler importation of SARS-CoV-2, attendance at skilled and social occasions, introduction into services or settings inclined to amplification, and challenges in virus detection all contributed to speedy acceleration of transmission throughout March. Public well being responses included intensive efforts to detect circumstances and hint contacts, and implementation of a number of neighborhood mitigation methods.
Because many of the inhabitants stays prone to an infection, recognition of things related to amplified unfold throughout the early acceleration interval will assist inform future choices as places within the United States cut back some parts of mitigation and strengthen methods to detect a possible transmission resurgence.
U.S. circulation of SARS-CoV-2 continues, and sustained efforts shall be wanted to forestall future unfold throughout the United States.